Rasterio has one C library dependency: GDAL >=3.1. GDAL itself depends on many of other libraries provided by most major operating systems and also depends on the non standard GEOS and PROJ4 libraries.

Python package dependencies (see also requirements.txt): affine, cligj, click, enum34, numpy.

Development also requires (see requirements-dev.txt) Cython and other packages.

Installing from binaries


Binary wheels with the GDAL, GEOS, and PROJ4 libraries included are available for OS X versions 10.7+ starting with Rasterio version 0.17. To install, run pip install rasterio. These binary wheels are preferred by newer versions of pip. If you don’t want these wheels and want to install from a source distribution, run pip install rasterio --no-binary instead.

The included GDAL library is fairly minimal, providing only the format drivers that ship with GDAL and are enabled by default. To get access to more formats, you must build from a source distribution (see below).

Binary wheels for other operating systems will be available in a future release.


Binary wheels with the GDAL, GEOS, and PROJ libraries included are available for Windows 64bit starting with Rasterio version 1.3. To install, run pip install rasterio.

Binary wheels for rasterio < 1.3 and GDAL < 3.5 for Windows 64bit and 32bit were created by Christoph Gohlke and are currently available from his website.

To install rasterio < 1.3, download both binaries for your system (rasterio and GDAL) and run something like this from the downloads folder:

$ pip install -U pip
$ pip install GDAL‑3.4.3‑cp311‑cp311‑win32.whl
$ pip install rasterio‑1.2.10‑cp311‑cp311‑win32.whl

Installing with Anaconda

To install rasterio on the Anaconda Python distribution, please visit the rasterio conda-forge page for install instructions. This build is maintained separately from the rasterio distribution on PyPi and packaging issues should be addressed on the rasterio conda-forge issue tracker.

Installing from the source distribution

Rasterio is a Python C extension and to build you’ll need a working compiler (XCode on OS X etc). You’ll also need Numpy preinstalled; the Numpy headers are required to run the rasterio setup script. Numpy has to be installed (via the indicated requirements file) before rasterio can be installed. See rasterio’s Travis configuration for more guidance.


The following commands are adapted from Rasterio’s Travis-CI configuration.

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ubuntugis/ppa
$ sudo apt-get update
$ sudo apt-get install python-numpy gdal-bin libgdal-dev
$ pip install rasterio

Adapt them as necessary for your Linux system.


For a Homebrew based Python environment, do the following.

$ brew install gdal
$ pip install rasterio


You can download a binary distribution of GDAL from here. You will also need to download the compiled libraries and headers (include files).

When building from source on Windows, it is important to know that cannot rely on gdal-config, which is only present on UNIX systems, to discover the locations of header files and libraries that rasterio needs to compile its C extensions. On Windows, these paths need to be provided by the user. You will need to find the include files and the library files for gdal and use as follows.

$ python build_ext -I<path to gdal include files> -lgdal_i -L<path to gdal library> install

With pip

$ pip install --no-use-pep517 --global-option -I<path to gdal include files> -lgdal_i -L<path to gdal library> .

Note: --no-use-pep517 is required as pip currently hasn’t implemented a way for optional arguments to be passed to the build backend when using PEP 517. See here. for more details.

Alternatively environment variables (e.g. INCLUDE and LINK) used by MSVC compiler can be used to point to include directories and library files.

We have had success compiling code using the same version of Microsoft’s Visual Studio used to compile the targeted version of Python (more info on versions used here.).

Note: The GDAL dll (gdal111.dll) and gdal-data directory need to be in your Windows PATH otherwise rasterio will fail to work.