There are two parts to the georeferencing of raster datasets: the definition of the local, regional, or global system in which a raster’s pixels are located; and the parameters by which pixel coordinates are transformed into coordinates in that system.

Coordinate Reference System

The coordinate reference system of a dataset is accessed from its crs attribute.

>>> import rasterio
>>> src ='tests/data/RGB.byte.tif')
CRS({'init': 'epsg:32618'})

Rasterio follows pyproj and uses PROJ.4 syntax in dict form as its native CRS syntax. If you want a WKT representation of the CRS, see the CRS class’s wkt attribute.

'PROJCS["WGS 84 / UTM zone 18N",GEOGCS["WGS 84",DATUM["WGS_1984",SPHEROID["WGS 84",6378137,298.257223563,AUTHORITY["EPSG","7030"]],AUTHORITY["EPSG","6326"]],PRIMEM["Greenwich",0,AUTHORITY["EPSG","8901"]],UNIT["degree",0.0174532925199433,AUTHORITY["EPSG","9122"]],AUTHORITY["EPSG","4326"]],PROJECTION["Transverse_Mercator"],PARAMETER["latitude_of_origin",0],PARAMETER["central_meridian",-75],PARAMETER["scale_factor",0.9996],PARAMETER["false_easting",500000],PARAMETER["false_northing",0],UNIT["metre",1,AUTHORITY["EPSG","9001"]],AXIS["Easting",EAST],AXIS["Northing",NORTH],AUTHORITY["EPSG","32618"]]'

When opening a new file for writing, you may also use a CRS string as an argument.

>>> profile = {'driver': 'GTiff', 'height': 100, 'width': 100, 'count': 1, 'dtype': rasterio.uint8}
>>> with'/tmp/foo.tif', 'w', crs='EPSG:3857', **profile) as dst:
...     pass # write data to this Web Mercator projection dataset.

Coordinate Transformation

A dataset’s pixel coordinate system has its origin at the “upper left” (imagine it displayed on your screen). Column index increases to the right, and row index increases downward. The mapping of these coordinates to “world” coordinates in the dataset’s reference system is done with an affine transformation matrix.

>>> src.transform
Affine(300.0379266750948, 0.0, 101985.0,
       0.0, -300.041782729805, 2826915.0)

The Affine object is a named tuple with elements a, b, c, d, e, f corresponding to the elements in the matrix equation below, in which a pixel’s image coordinates are x, y and its world coordinates are x', y'.:

| x' |   | a b c | | x |
| y' | = | d e f | | y |
| 1  |   | 0 0 1 | | 1 |

The Affine class has some useful properties and methods described at